UI - Nature based recreation opportunities (LUISA Platform REF2014)

Collection: LUISA : Land-Use based Integrated Sustainability Assessment modelling platform 


Public, local, nature-based, outdoor recreational activities include a wide variety of practices ranging from walking, jogging or running in the closest green urban area or at the river/lake/sea shore, riding bike in nature after work, picnicking, observing flora and fauna, organizing a daily trip to enjoy the surrounding beauties of the landscape, among a myriad of other possibilities. These activities have an important role on the human well-being and health, since they provide physical, aesthetic, cultural benefits and offer an opportunity to experience directly a relationship with nature. In addition, fruition of nature-based recreational activities may induce people’s support for ecosystem protection. The model estimates the capacity of urban ecosystems to provide recreational opportunities.


carlo.lavalle (at)


How to cite

Lavalle, Carlo; Zulian, Grazia (2015): UI - Nature based recreation opportunities (LUISA Platform REF2014). European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC) [Dataset] PID:


cultural ecosystem services FUA LUISA Urban indicator urban services EU Reference Scenario 2014

Data access

UI - Nature based recreation opportunities (FUA)
  • The compressed zip file includes the attribute table with the Recreation Potential per Functional Urban Areas (FUAs), for 2010, 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050. The data is stored in csv format.


Mapping cultural ecosystem services: A framework to assess the potential for outdoor recreation across the EU
Paracchini M, Zulian G, Kopperoinen L, Maes J, Philipp S, Termansen M, Zandersen M, Perez-Soba M, Scholefield P, Bidoglio G. Mapping cultural ecosystem services: A framework to assess the potential for outdoor recreation across the EU. ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS 45; 2014. p. 371-385. JRC83393
Publication page 
  • Abstract

    The publication of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 requires a substantial effort in terms of operationalizing the ecosystem service concept. Target 2 of the Strategy in fact advocates that ecosystems and their services have to be “maintained and enhanced” in the current decade. This necessitates the development of methods to map and assess ecosystem services at regional and Country level, which is recognized under Action 5 of the strategy. Research on ecosystem services mapping and valuing has boosted in recent years, nevertheless compared to other groups (provisioning, regulating) cultural ecosystem services are not yet fully integrated into operational frameworks. One reason is the transdisciplinarity which is required to address the issue: by their own definition cultural services (which encompass physical, intellectual, spiritual interactions with biota) need to be analysed from multiple perspectives (i.e. ecological, social, behavioural). A second reason is most likely the lack of data for large-scale assessments, being direct surveys a main source of information. Among cultural ecosystem services, assessment of outdoor recreation can be based on a large pool of literature developed mostly in social and medical science, and landscape and ecology studies. This paper presents a methodology to include recreation in the conceptual framework for EU wide ecosystem assessments (Maes et al., 2013), which couples existing approaches for recreation management at Country level with behavioural data derived from surveys and literature, and population distribution analysis. The result is a frame that can be applied to quantify the capacity of outdoor recreation as ecosystem service to citizens in the EU, and describe through Country profiles differences in provision, as input to land planning processes.

European cities: territorial analysis of characteristics and trends - An application of the LUISA Modelling Platform (EU Reference Scenario 2013 - Updated Configuration 2014)
Kompil M, Aurambout J, Ribeiro Barranco R, Barbosa A, Jacobs C, Pisoni E, Zulian G, Vandecasteele I, Trombetti M, Vizcaino M, Vallecillo Rodriguez S, Batista E Silva F, Baranzelli C, Mari Rivero I, Perpiña Castillo C, Polce C, Maes J, Lavalle C. European cities: territorial analysis of characteristics and trends - An application of the LUISA Modelling Platform (EU Reference Scenario 2013 - Updated Configuration 2014). EUR 27709. Luxembourg (Luxembourg): Publications Office of the European Union; 2015. JRC100001
  • Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Publication page 
  • Abstract

    Cities and towns are at the core of the European economy but they are often also the places where problems related to the quality of life of citizens such as unemployment, segregation and poverty are most evident.

    To curtail the negative impacts and foster the positive effects of ongoing urban processes in Europe, policies have to be adjusted and harmonised to accommodate future urbanization trends. Such an analysis of the evolution of European cities requires the evaluation of impacts of continent-wide drivers and, at the same time, assessment of the effect of national and local strategies.

    As a contribution to this analysis of the current and future evolution of European territories (countries, macro-regions, regions or urban areas), the Directorate-General Joint Research Centre (DG JRC) of the European Commission (EC) has developed the Land-Use-based Integrated Sustainability Assessment (LUISA) Modelling Platform. Based on the concept of ‘dynamic land functions’, LUISA has adopted a novel approach towards activity-based modelling and endogenous dynamic allocation of population, services and activities.

    This report illustrates how European cities could potentially evolve over the time period 2010-2050, according to the reference configuration of the LUISA modelling platform, on the basis of a collection of spatial indicators covering several thematic fields. These spatial indicators aim to improve our understanding of urbanization and urban development processes in Europe; explore territorial dimensions of projected demographic and economic changes, and finally examine some key challenges that urban areas are or may be exposed to. Some of the key findings of this report are given below:

    - The proportion of the population living in cities, towns and suburbs is higher in the EU than in the rest of the world. According to the LUISA forecasts, the urban proportion will continue to increase up to 2030; subsequently slow down, and reach a relatively steady state by 2050. - In 2010, 65% of the EU population were living in Functional Urban Areas (FUA, the city and its commuting zone). This figure is expected to reach 70% by 2050. The total EU-28 population is expected to grow by 4.6%. Most of this population growth will occur particularly in FUA which will grow by an average 14%. - As of 2010, the amount of artificial areas per inhabitant in the EU-28 was estimated as 498 m2: it becomes 539 m2 in 2050 with an 8% increase. Although there is not a unique spatial pattern, land take tends to start peak at 5 km distance from the city centre. This is due to the fact that land is often less available for development within city centres and that the majority of land take therefore will occur firstly in the suburbs and then in rural areas. - By 2050, potential accessibility – as measure of economic opportunities - will be higher in the urban areas of north-western Europe, while it will not improve in lagging European regions. Urban form has a considerable impact on average travelled distances and thus potentially on the energy dependence of transport. - Green infrastructure is mainly located at the periphery of urban areas. Its share per person is generally low or very low in most of the European cities, with few exceptions. Green infrastructure per capita in FUA shows a general trend towards a decrease across the EU-28 (by approximately 13%) between 2010 and 2050. - Larger cities tend to have higher average flood risk, especially due to the higher sensitivity in terms of potential human and physical losses.

    The analysis herein presented is part of a wider initiative of DG JRC and DG REGIO aiming to improve the management of knowledge and sharing of information related to territorial policies, such as those concerning urban development. In this framework, the work will be further developed, covering the following main elements:

    - Development of the European Urban Data Platform, providing a single access point for data and indicators on the status and trends of European urban areas; - Updates of the LUISA configuration, to account for new socio-economic projections; - Support to the development of the EU Urban Agenda and related initiatives; - Provision of evidence-based support for the evaluation of territorial policies in particular to proof the role of cities in the implementation of EU priorities.

Geographic areas

European Union

Spatial coverage

Type Value
<gml:Envelope srsName=""><gml:lowerCorner>-12.34 32.97</gml:lowerCorner><gml:upperCorner>38.04 73.04</gml:upperCorner>
POLYGON((-12.34 73.04,38.04 73.04,38.04 32.97,-12.34 32.97,-12.34 73.04))

Temporal coverage

From date To date
2010-01-01 2050-12-31

Additional information

Published by
European Commission, Joint Research Centre
Created date
Modified date
Issued date
Landing page 
Data theme(s)
Regions and cities, Science and technology
Update frequency