ENACT-POP R2020A - ENACT 2011 Population Grid

Collection: ENACT : Spatiotemporal population and activity maps 


This spatial raster dataset depicts the distribution/density of population, expressed as the number of people per cell, during night-time and daytime for each month of 2011. The grids are produced by estimating the regional and monthly stocks of population sub-groups and disaggregating the population stocks to grid level using a detailed maps of land uses, location of socioeconomic activities and built-up. The results are cross-compared against independent sources. These tasks involve the assembly and combination of statistical and geo-data from multiple sources, both conventional (e.g. official statistics, information derived from remote sensing) and non-conventional (e.g. volunteered geographic information, data from web services, proprietary thematic datasets, mobile phone data).


jrc-ghsl-data (at)


How to cite

Schiavina, Marcello; Freire, Sergio; Rosina, Konstantin; Ziemba, Lukasz; Marin Herrera, Mario; Craglia, Massimo; Lavalle, Carlo; Kemper, Thomas; Batista, Filipe (2020): ENACT-POP R2020A - ENACT 2011 Population Grid. European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC) [Dataset] doi: 10.2905/BE02937C-5A08-4732-A24A-03E0A48BDCDA PID:


CLC European map ENACT GHSL Population grid LUISA

Data access

  • ENACT seasonal nighttime and daytime population grids for 2011. Values are expressed as decimals (Float). The data is published at 1 km resolution

    in Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area (EPSG:3035), 12 monthly nightime grids and 12 daytime grids, and at 30 arc-seconds in WGS-84 (EPSG:4326), 12 monthly nightime grids and 12 daytime grids. The compressed ZIP file contain TIF files and short documentation.

GHSL Website
  • Project Web site


ENACT 2011 Population grids
Schiavina, M., Carneiro Freire, S., Rosina, K., Ziemba, L., Marín Herrera, M., Craglia, M., Lavalle, C., Kemper, T. and Batista E Silva, F., ENACT 2011 Population grids, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2020, ISBN 978-92-76-10719-4 (online), doi:10.2760/27863 (online), JRC119548.
  • Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Publication page 
  • Abstract

    The ENACT grids are a set of consistent, seamless, multi-temporal and validated population density grids for the European Union that take into account major daily and monthly population variations. These grids were produced by combining official statistical data at regional level with geo-spatial data from conventional and non-conventional data sources. The grids display maximum population density at day- and night-time for each month of the year (i.e. 24 population grids in total), at a spatial resolution of 1 x 1 km resolution for the whole EU-28. This is a major contribution to the state-of-the-art information on population density in Europe, as prior grids considered only static residential population (i.e. night-time). The newly released grids were produced in the context of the JRC ENACT exploratory research project, “ENhancing ACTivity and population mapping. This document accompanies the public release of the ENACT 2011 Population Grids and describes the contents.

Uncovering temporal changes in Europe’s population density patterns using a data fusion approach
Batista E Silva, F., Carneiro Freire, S.M., Schiavina, M., Rosina, K., Marín Herrera, M.A., Ziemba, L.W., Craglia, M., Koomen, E. and Lavalle, C., Uncovering temporal changes in Europe’s population density patterns using a data fusion approach, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, ISSN 2041-1723 (online), 11, 2020, p. 4631, JRC121574.
Publication page 
  • Abstract

    The knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of human population is vital for the study of cities, disaster risk management or planning of infrastructure. However, information on the distribution of population is often based on place-of-residence statistics from official sources, thus ignoring the changing population densities resulting from human mobility.

    Existing assessments of spatio-temporal population are limited in their detail and geographical coverage, and the promising mobile-phone records are hindered by issues concerning availability and consistency. Here, we present a multi-layered dasymetric approach that combines official statistics with geospatial data from emerging sources to produce and validate a European Union-wide dataset of population grids taking into account intraday and monthly population variations at 1 km2 resolution. The results reproduce and systematically quantify known insights concerning the spatio-temporal population density structure of large European cities, whose daytime population we estimate to be, on average, 1.9 times higher than night time in city centers.

Geographic areas

European Union

Spatial coverage

Type Value
POLYGON((-53.51 70.916,58.715 70.916,58.715 24.791,-53.51 24.791,-53.51 70.916))

Temporal coverage

From date To date
2011-01-01 2011-12-31

Additional information

Published by
European Commission, Joint Research Centre
Created date
Modified date
Issued date
Landing page 
Data theme(s)
Regions and cities, Population and society, Science and technology
Update frequency